Optimal Result: 0 - 0.3 µg/g.

Hair Tin (Sn) levels have been found to correlate with environmental exposure. Depending on chemical form, Sn is a potentially toxic element. Inorganic Sn has a low degree of toxicity, while organic Sn has appreciable toxicity. Inorganic Sn is used as flame-proofing treatment in textiles, as a wood preservative, and has various uses in the glass industry. Sn is also used in tin plate electrolysis for Sn alloy coatings.

Stannous fluoride is found in some toothpastes and stannous octanoate is a catalyst utilized in the production of flexible polyurethane foam. Food is a common source of Sn. Other possible sources are: dental amalgams, cosmetics, preservatives, food and beverage containers, pewter, bronze, and anticorrosive platings. Symptoms of excess Sn include: skin, eye, and GI tract irritation, muscle weakness, anemia, and neurodegenerative disease (demyelinization). A confirmatory test for excessive accumulation of Sn is the measurement of Sn in urine before and after provocation with DMPS, DMSA or EDTA. Urinary Sn is often high post DMSA/DMPS in autistic patients. Dietary exposure to Sn can be assessed by fecal elements analysis.

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