Hair Tin (Sn) levels have been found to correlate with environmental exposure. Depending on chemical form, Sn is a potentially toxic element. Inorganic Sn has a low degree of toxicity, while organic Sn has appreciable toxicity. Inorganic Sn is used as flame-proofing treatment in textiles, as a wood preservative, and has various uses in the glass industry. Sn is also used in tin plate electrolysis for Sn alloy coatings.
Stannous fluoride is found in some toothpastes and stannous octanoate is a catalyst utilized in the production of flexible polyurethane foam. Food is a common source of Sn. Other possible sources are: dental amalgams, cosmetics, preservatives, food and beverage containers, pewter, bronze, and anticorrosive platings. Symptoms of excess Sn include: skin, eye, and GI tract irritation, muscle weakness, anemia, and neurodegenerative disease (demyelinization). A confirmatory test for excessive accumulation of Sn is the measurement of Sn in urine before and after provocation with DMPS, DMSA or EDTA. Urinary Sn is often high post DMSA/DMPS in autistic patients. Dietary exposure to Sn can be assessed by fecal elements analysis.
The main source of Tin is food.
Other possible sources are: dental amalgams, cosmetics, preservatives, food and beverage containers, pewter, bronze, and anticorrosive platings.
Elevated levels of tin in a hair analysis can indicate past or chronic exposure to tin. Tin exposure might come from various sources such as contaminated food or water, certain types of solder, and some types of canned foods.
It's important to note that these findings suggest historical exposure rather than immediate toxicity. However, if elevated levels persist, it's advisable to investigate potential sources of ongoing exposure and take appropriate measures to minimize contact with the substance.
Symptoms of excess Tin include:
Skin, eye, and GI tract irritation, muscle weakness, anemia, and testicular degeneration.
A confirmatory test for excessive accumulation of Tin is the measurement of Tin in urine before and after provocation with a chelation/complexing agent (Ca-EDTA, DMPS, DMSA).
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