Ananas comosus, popularly known as pineapple belongs to the family of Bromeliaceae and is considered as the second most essential tropical fruit worldwide. The pineapple fruit is widely consumed fresh or cooked or even extracted for its juice. Consumption of pineapple has mostly been associated with allergic reactions, such as oral allergy syndrome (OAS), that may be related to pollens (pollen-food-syndrome). The OAS due to pineapple was found to be prevalent in various regions across the globe (Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia), however, the percentage of prevalence was not found to be very significant. Such type of OAS (oropharyngeal, cutaneous, respiratory, or gastrointestinal manifestations) is attributed to the presence of pan-allergen profilin, Ana c 1 in pineapple fruit.
Further, systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions are also observed due to pineapple consumption, mainly due to its bromelain content (Ana c 2, a major allergen). Such reactions may even lead to anaphylaxis in few cases. Besides, pineapple has been found to be associated with unpleasant reactions, such as oral mucosal irritation, which is majorly due to its acidic content or bromelain-mediated proteolysis of oral mucosa, so not due to the IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Bromelain or Ana c 2 is a member of cysteine protease enzyme and plays a major role in detecting cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) in pollens. Further, Ana c 1 is found to be cross-reactive with profilins present in pollens and fruits due to its high-sequence identity observed.
Also, pineapple has been found to be associated with latex-fruit syndrome and ficus-fruit syndrome due to both its allergens, profilin and bromelain. Additionally, bromelain is highly homologous to other cysteine proteinases, such as papain.
Elevated antibody levels can be clinically significant — while the antibodies themselves don’t destroy anything, they do trigger an inflammatory response that can cause significant destruction of tissue and resulting symptoms. This response is not necessarily dependent on antibody levels. However, an equivocal result may mean you are just beginning to exhibit an immune reaction, so this is an important time to take measures to support the body in damping immune reactivity.
Remove this item from your diet or minimize your exposure to it.
Elevated levels of IgG reaction to a certain food does not necessarily mean you have an intolerance, but research shows that by eliminating foods that cause an IgG reaction, you can potentially improve certain food-related symptoms - including gastrointestinal distress, headaches, dry and itchy skin, and fatigue. Please keep in mind that IgG reactivity does not necessarily correlate directly with symptoms, so your results are meant to guide you through the next steps of the process.
Pineapple fruit may induce immunoglobulin hypersensitivity reactions with bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme and a major allergen of pineapple responsible for its allergy. Apart from the fruit, bromelain has extensively been found in other parts of the plant, which include its stem, leaves as well as peel of the fruit. The stem and fruit possess high quantities of bromelain allergen, which has wide biotechnological applications in the field of food, medicine and cosmetic industry. Interestingly, the bromelain content in stem is more than that of fruit.
Pollen food allergy syndrome has been reported widely as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and food allergens. Further, one of the pan-allergen majorly responsible for this cross-reactivity includes profilins. This protein, found in different pollens and plant foods, has shown high-sequence homology among them, leading to cross-reactivity.
Own it for life
Our exclusive data entry service is a convenient way to get your results into your private dashboard. Simply attach an image or a file of your lab test results, and one of our qualified data entry team members will add the results for you. We support all sorts of files, whether PDFs, JPGs, or Excel. This service is excellent whether you have a lot of reports to upload or are too busy to do the data entry yourself.
We strive to make the data entry process easy for you. Whether by offering dozens of templates to choose from that pre-populate the most popular laboratory panels or by giving you instant feedback on the entered values. Our data entry forms are an easy, fast, and convenient way to enter the reports yourself. There is no limit on how many lab reports you can upload.
billed every month
Data entry included
$6.60/month billed annually
Data entry included
own it for life
Are You a Health Professional?
Get started with our professional plan
Welcome to Healthmatters Pro.
Save time on interpreting lab results with the largest database of biomarkers online. In-depth research on any test at your fingertips, all stored and tracked in one place. Learn more
Pro Monthly Plus
for health professionals
$75 per month