A healthy result should fall into the range 3 - 7 ng/mg.
Estrone, also called E1, is the main female hormone made by women after menopause. Menopause is a time in a woman's life when her menstrual periods have stopped and she can't become pregnant anymore. It usually starts when a woman is around 50 years old.
Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) are three endogenously produced estrogens.
A moderately potent estrogen. Binds primarily to Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα).1 Estrone is metabolized into 2- Hydroxy Estrone (2-OH E1), 16α-Hydroxy Estrone (16α-OH E1), and 4-Hydroxy Estrone (4-OH E1).
- Made via aromatization in several tissues like fat and muscle
- Weaker compared to Estradiol (Research says the estrogenic activity is about 4% of estradiol’s activity)
- Most abundant in menopause
- Converts into estradiol (E2)
What does Estrogen do?
1. Growth and development of female secondary sex characteristics
2. Thickens the uterus for implantation, increases vaginal acidity to protect against infection, important for vaginal lubrication (particularly E3)
3. Necessary for bone health
4. In the brain helps maintain body temperature, protects against memory loss, increases serotonin and serotonin receptors
5. Important for collagen production, skin thickness and getting blood supply to the skin
6. Helps protect against atherosclerosis
7. Estrogen through the ER helps induce or upregulate the expression of the PR
Why does estrogen decrease?
- Age (peri-menopause and menopause)
- Irregular cycles/skipped cycles/anovulation
- Hysterectomy with ovaries removed
- Low cholesterol (backbone to hormones)
- Extreme exercise or training
- Extreme stress resulting in skipped menses
- Under appropriate body weight percentage for height/age
• Mixed research: suggested <15% body fat = amenorrhea
- Hypogonadism (ovaries fail)
- Hypopituitarism (pituitary not communicating)
- Decreased blood flow to the ovaries
- Ex. Surgery or smokers
- Breast feeding
- Fertility medications
- Opioid pain medications (in last 6 months)
- Hormonal birth control – pill, patch, ring, implant, injectio
Why do Estrogen levels increase?
2. Peri-menopause = surges of estrogen
5. Estrogen supplementation
6. Steroid medications
7. Poor liver clearance so estrogens build up
8. Dysbiosis/Estrobolome problems
9. Over aromatization from testosterone
10. Environmental estrogens (difficult to test however)
11. Alcohol (2 or more glasses/day shown to increase E)
12. Ovarian cysts
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