Anti-Aquaporin 4 (IgM)

Optimal Result: 0.1 - 10 Units.

Antibodies to aquaporin 4 constitute a sensitive and highly specific serum marker of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that can facilitate the differential diagnosis of NMO and classic multiple sclerosis.

Neuromyelitis optica is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). The discovery of circulating IgG antibodies against the astrocyte water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and the evidence that AQP4 IgG is involved in the development of neuromyelitis optica revolutionized the understanding of the disease. Anti aquaporin 4 antibodies have also been shown in patients with peripheral demyelination. In addition, human aquaporin 4 shows cross-reactivity with corn and soybean aquaporins.

References:

Vaishnav RA, Liu R, Chapman J, Roberts AM, Ye H, Rebolledo-Mendez JD, Tabira T, Fitzpatrick AH, Achiron A, Running MP, Friedland RP. Aquaporin 4 molecular mimicry and implications for neuromyelitis optica. J Neuroimmunol. 2013 Jul 15;260(1-2):92-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.04.015. Epub 2013 May 9. PMID: 23664693; PMCID: PMC3682654.

Jarius S, Wildemann B. Aquaporin-4 antibodies (NMO-IgG) as a serological marker of neuromyelitis optica: a critical review of the literature. Brain Pathol. 2013 Nov;23(6):661-83. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12084. PMID: 24118483; PMCID: PMC8028894.

What does it mean if your Anti-Aquaporin 4 (IgM) result is too high?

Antibodies to aquaporin 4 constitute a sensitive and highly specific serum marker of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) that can facilitate the differential diagnosis of NMO and classic multiple sclerosis.

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