Alpha-aminoadipic acid (also known as 2-aminoadipic acid) is an intermediary biomarker of lysine and tryptophan metabolism. The further metabolism of alpha-aminoadipic acid to alpha-ketoadipic acid requires vitamin B6.
Plasma alpha-aminoadipic acid is strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes as seen in an assessment of the Framingham Heart Study data. Circulating levels were found to be elevated for many years prior to the onset of diabetes.
Preclinical data shows it may also play a role in oxidation and atherosclerotic plaque formation.
Low levels of this metabolite can be seen when it’s precursors, lysine and tryptophan, are also low. There is no known clinical significance of low levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid.
The excretion of alpha-aminoadipic acid correlates well with lysine intake.
Elevations of alpha-aminoadipic acid may be due to rate limitations of downstream enzymes that require nutrient cofactors including vitamin B2, B6, B12, and choline. Lastly, alpha-aminoadipic aciduria is an extremely rare inborn error of metabolism.
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