It is a metabolite of phenylalanine and is excreted in the urine of patients suffering from diseases like phenylketonuria.
2-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid may be an indication for SIBO. Also becomes elevated with Giardia.
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Elevated levels of 2-hydroxyphenylacetate may occur if the patient is on a high-protein diet or if there are digestive disorders present. Disorders such as protein malabsorption can increase the amount of undigested protein in the gut lumen, which are then metabolized into 2-hydroxyphenylacetate by the gut bacteria.
→ Consider a stool test or other evaluation of the gastrointestinal microbiome.
Elevated 2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is associated with intestinal bacteria overgrowth.
- Excessive phenylaline (dietary or PKU) or tyrosine
- Reduced oxygenation (Fe deficiency, anaemia, pulmonary disorder)
- Low tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) - an essential cofactor for phenylaline, tyrosine, tryptophan & nitric oxide
- Urinary Amino Acids
- Iron Studies
- Rule out excessive phenylaline & or tyrosine
- Address oxygenation (correct anaemia, pulmonary problems, cardiac insufficiency)
- Supplement vitamin C (increases BH4 levels in the body)
- 5-MTHF (from folic acid) may help nitric oxide production when BH4 is low
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2-Decenedioic Acid, 2-ET-3-OH-Propionic, 2-Hydroxyadipic, 2-Hydroxybutyric, 2-Hydroxyglutaric, 2-Hydroxyisocaproic, 2-Hydroxyisovaleric, 2-Methyl, 3-Hydroxybutyric, 2-Methylacetoacetic, 2-Methylbutrylglycine, 2-Methylglutaconic Acid, 2-Octenedioic acid, 2-Octenoic Acid, 2-OH-3ME-Valeric, 2-Oxo-3-methylvaleric, 2-OXO-Butyric Acid, 2-OXOADIPIC, 2-Oxoglutaric, 2-Oxoisocaproic, 2-Oxoisovaleric, 2OH-Phenylacetic Acid, 3-Hydroxyadipic, 3-Hydroxybutyric, 3-Hydroxyglutaric, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric, 3-Hydroxyisovaleric, 3-Hydroxypropionic, 3-Hydroxysebacic, 3-Hydroxyvaleric, 3-Methylcrotonylglycine, 3-Methylglutaconic, 3-Methylglutaric, 3-OH-3-Methylglutaric, 3OH-2-Methylvaleric Acid, 3OH-Dodecanedioic Acid, 3OH-Dodecanoic Acid, 4 HYDROXYCYCLOHEX- ANEACETIC, 4-Hydroxphenyllactic, 4-Hydroxybutyric, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic, 4OH-Pheylpropionic Acid, 5-HIAA, 5-Oxoproline, 5OH-Hexanoic Acid, Acetoacetic, Aconitic, Ur, Adipic, Butyrylglycine, Citric, Crotonylglycine, Decadienedioic, Dodecanedioic, Ethylmalonic, Fumaric, Glutaconic, Glutaric, Glyceric Acid, Hexanoylglycine, Homogentisic, HOMOVANILLIC ACID, Isobutyrylglycine, Isocitric, Isovaleryglycine, Lactic, Lactic Acid, Malic, Malonic, Methylcitric, Methylmalonic, Methylsuccinic, Mevalonolactone, N ACETYLASPARTIC, N-AcetylTyrosine, N-Valerylglycine, Octanoic, Orotic, Phenylacetic, Phenyllactic, Phenylpropionylglycine, Phenylpyruvic, Propionylglycine, Pyruvic, Sebacic, Suberic, Suberylglycine, Succinic, Succinylacetone, Thymine, Tiglylglycine, Trans-Cinnamoylglycine, Uracil, VMA