Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that originate in the lymphatic system, a crucial part of the body's immune defense. Unlike Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL encompasses a diverse group of subtypes, each with unique characteristics and behaviors. The two main categories of NHL are B-cell lymphomas, which develop from abnormal B lymphocytes, and T-cell lymphomas, originating from T lymphocytes. B-cell lymphomas are more common, accounting for the majority of NHL cases. The disease can occur at any age, but the risk increases with age, and it is more common in men than women. The symptoms of NHL vary depending on the type and location of the lymphoma but may include swollen, painless lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, and abdominal pain or swelling. The causes of NHL are not well-understood, but factors like immune system dysfunction, exposure to certain viruses (such as Epstein-Barr virus), genetic predisposition, and environmental factors may play a role in its development. The diagnosis of NHL typically involves a biopsy of affected lymph tissue, followed by imaging studies and blood tests to determine the extent and subtype of the lymphoma. Treatment depends on the NHL subtype, the stage of the disease, and the patient's overall health. It may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these. The prognosis of NHL varies widely; some subtypes are very aggressive and require immediate treatment, while others are slow-growing and can be monitored over time. Advances in treatment, including newer targeted therapies and immunotherapies, have significantly improved the outcomes for many people with NHL, offering more personalized and effective treatment options. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for potential recurrence or long-term effects of the treatment.