Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a prevalent pathogen with a wide-ranging impact on human health. Characterized by its ability to establish lifelong latent infections with periodic reactivations, CMV primarily infects epithelial and endothelial cells, as well as leukocytes. It is transmitted through bodily fluids like saliva, urine, blood, and semen, making it highly communicable in close-contact settings. Clinically, CMV can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals, but it poses significant risks in immunocompromised populations, such as HIV/AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, and newborns with congenital CMV infection. In these high-risk groups, CMV can cause severe manifestations, including retinitis, pneumonitis, and gastrointestinal disease. Congenital CMV, acquired in utero, is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Diagnosis of CMV infection is typically through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, detecting viral DNA, or by serological methods assessing specific CMV antibodies. Treatment involves antiviral agents like ganciclovir, valganciclovir, and foscarnet, primarily used in severe or life-threatening infections. However, these treatments do not eradicate the virus but rather control its replication. Preventative strategies, particularly in healthcare and maternal-child settings, are crucial to reduce CMV transmission, emphasizing the importance of hygiene practices. Advances in vaccine development are ongoing, aiming to mitigate the public health burden of CMV, especially in vulnerable populations.