Optimal Result: 0 - 1.8 mcg/mg creatinine.

The presence of organic compounds such as p-Hydroxybenzoate in the urine may point towards significant dysbiosis (=impaired microbiota). p-Hydroxybenzoat may reflect intestsinal overgrowth, usually accomanied by microbal hyperpermeability.

What does it mean if your p-Hydroxybenzoate result is too high?

Take appropriate steps to ensure favorable gut microflora population.

Ways to improve your gut bacteria:

1. Eat Lots of Vegetables, Legumes, Beans and Fruit
2. Cut out artifical sweeteners
3. Eat Fermented Foods
4. Eat Prebiotic Foods
5. Eat Whole Grains
6. Eat a Plant-Based Diet
7. Eat Foods Rich in Polyphenols
8. Avoid storing or heating food and drinks in plastic


  • Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics.(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18215222)
  • Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23609775)
  • Impact of increasing fruit and vegetables and flavonoid intake on the human gut microbiota (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757793)
  • Effects of non-fermented and fermented soybean milk intake on faecal microbiota and faecal metabolites in humans. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22040525)
  • Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231862)
  • Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17761020)
  • Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336217)
  • Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835915/)


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