A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 9.3 mmol/mol creatinine.
Succinate (or succinic acid) is an important metabolite that is involved in several chemical processes in the body. Succinic acid is a key intermediate of both the Kreb’s cycle and the electron transport chain that generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the currency for most of the body’s energy transactions.
Succinate is produced from bacterial degradation of unabsorbed glutamine and is a metabolite of alpha-ketogluturate, as well as methionine, valine & leucine; precursor of fumaric acid; also formed from bacterial action on glutamine.
Low levels may indicate the need for leucine/isoleucine supplementation.
Elevated levels suggest a relative deficiency of riboflavin and/or CoQ10. Produced by bacterial degradation of unabsorbed glutamine supplement.
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