A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 0.94 mmol/mol creatinine.
Fumarate (together with Succinate and Malate) is used in the body’s metabolic pathway that generates cellular energy – the Citric Acid Cycle. This cycle critically supports organ maintenance and neurological function. Fumarate is also a product of the urea cycle. Much like vitamin D, fumaric acid is formed by the body, in the skin, during exposure to sunlight.
Low levels of Fumarate can indicate a general amino acid insufficiency.
Excess urea cycle function can generate high levels of fumarate, because fumaric acid is one of the urea cycle products.
Higher levels of these compounds in urine indicate inefficiencies in energy production.
- Impaired metabolism due to low B3
- May be secondary to high pyruvate or lactate
- Yeast overgrowth
- Vitamin and Mineral Analysis
- Comprehensive Urine Elements Analysis
- Adrenal Hormone Profile
- Complete Digestive Stool Analysis
- Consider B3 supplementation, unless secondary to high pyruvate or lactate
- Rule out/address yeast overgrowth
If α-ketoglutarate is elevated along with succinate, malate, and fumarate, you may need additional CoQ10, a nutrient that enables the body to use oxygen to generate large amounts of energy.
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